1500 - A Portuguese fleet of caravels, led by Pedro Álvares Cabral, arrive in Brazil, on April 22. They land in Porto Seguro, on the coast of Bahia. The land was named Island of Vera Cruz.
1549 - City of Salvador, Bahia, is founded, by Thomé de Sousa, as the first capital of the country.
1694 - A gold rush starts in Minas Gerais. It would last for about a century.
1763 - The capital of Brasil is transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
1808 - King Dom João VI and his court move to Brazil, because of the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal. They arrive in Salvador, in January, where the opening of Brazilian ports to friendly nations is decreed. Later, in March, they arrive in Rio de Janeiro.
1821 - Dom Pedro I, son of Dom João VI, is appointed Prince Regent. Dom João VI returns to Portugal.
1822 - Pedro I proclaims war against Portugal, seeking independence of Brazil. The First Empire begins.
1824 - Portugal recognizes Brazil as an independent country.
1840 - Dom Pedro II is declared emperor of Brazil, at the age of 14. He rules until 1889, when the Republic is established.
1888 - Slavery in abolished in Brazil.
1889 - The Republic is peacefully established. Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca becomes the first president of Brazil.
1960 - The capital of the country is transferred to Brasília, a modern city constructed with a urbanization project by Lúcio Costa and buildings designed by Oscar Niemeyer.
1964 - A military coup starts a dictatorship that last until 1985.
1988 - A new Constitution, which extends the rights of citizens, is promulgated.
2012 - Brazil becomes the sixth economic power in the world.
The main facts, in brief:
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